Koj yuav tsum noj nqaij liab ntau npaum li cas?


Koj yuav tsum noj nqaij liab ntau npaum li cas?

Tsis meej pem los ntawm confounders

Txhawm rau kom muaj qee qhov pheej hmoo pheej hmoo yog tiag tiag, koj yuav tsum paub tias tsis muaj lwm qhov lus piav qhia kom pom qhov sib txuas ntawm ib qho zaub mov (los yog yeeb tshuaj, lossis lwm yam cuam tshuam hauv lub neej) thiab kab mob. Cov kev npau suav pom tsis tau dhau MMR thiab qhov txuas tau nrog cov tsi txawj has lug yog qhov teeb meem. Autism tau nce ntxiv, qee yam yuav tsum tau liam thiab ib pawg kws tshawb fawb maverick, abetted los ntawm cov xov xwm, xaiv MMR ua tus scapegoat.

Pity tus hedgehog

Cia peb coj hedgehogs. Hauv 50 xyoo dhau los, qhov muaj tseeb ntawm cov tsev neeg nyob hauv UK muaj TV. Qhov kev nce ntawd tau ua tiav cov lej ntawm cov hedgehogs hauv tebchaws Askiv tua ntawm txoj kev. Puas yog tus phem gogglebox liam? Tej zaum koj yuav xav paub, txog thaum koj paub tias UK cov tswv cuab TV tau nce ntawm qhov yuav luag zoo ib yam li cov tswv cuab lub tsheb – thiab cov tsheb squash hedgehogs. Cov tsheb yog qhov “tsis meej pem” – qhov ib txwm muaj uas tso cai rau lwm yam, muaj kev sib cav tsis sib xws tshwm sim los txuas rau txhua qhov.

Yog li ua ntej peb maj mus txhaws qhov kev liam ntawm lub qhov rooj ntawm ib qho laj thawj, peb yuav tsum paub tseeb ntawm cov cav.

Nws yog txoj hmoo

Kev ntsuas kev pheej hmoo yog qhov nyuaj txaus tab sis muab cov ntaub ntawv hla rau hauv qhov uas ua rau kev nkag siab yog qhov nyuaj dua. Nws yog txhua yam txog qhov tsis muaj tseeb thiab qhov txheeb ze uas yuav muaj, thiab txoj kev uas cov nuj nqis tuaj yeem nrawm.

Kev muaj feem raug tus mob yog koj qhov kev yuav kuaj pom muaj tus mob piv rau lwm tus. Kev raug mob tsis meej yog muaj pes tsawg leej ntxiv hauv ib pawg, hais, 100, yuav raug cuam tshuam raws li qhov tshwm sim. Ib qho 50% tus txheeb ze nce hauv qhov kev pheej hmoo nrov txaus ntshai – txog thaum koj paub tias los ntawm kev yuav peb txoj kev rho npe tshaj li ob, koj tau nce koj txoj kev yeej ntau ntau li 50%. Qhov tseeb tiag, koj tau nce koj qhov ‘pheej hmoo’ ntawm kev yeej los ntawm, hais tias, 1 hauv 3 lab rau 1 ntawm 2 lab – tag nrho cov ntawm ib qhov tshwm sim nws tsis zoo li tsis zoo.

Qhov teeb meem meaty

Qhov twg cov nqaij muaj kev txhawj xeeb, cov ncauj lus tshaj tawm los ntawm Lub Chaw Haujlwm Saib Xyuas Kev Noj Qab Haus Huv (IARC) tau tshuaj xyuas cov nqaij tiav rau xyoo 2015. Lawv ua rau pej xeem muaj kev txhawj xeeb loj thaum lawv tshaj tawm tias noj 50 g ntawm cov nqaij ua ib hnub ua rau muaj kev pheej hmoo ntawm plab hnyuv los ntawm 18%.

Tab sis Sir David Spiegelhalter, xib fwb qhia rau pej xeem txoj kev to taub txog kev pheej hmoo, ntawm Cambridge University tau muab qhov kev pheej hmoo xav tias: “Thaj tsam li ntawm 6 leej ntawm txhua 100 tus neeg yuav raug mob plab hnyuv tawm hauv lawv lub neej. nqaij npuas qhaub cij ib zaug nyob rau ib hnub ntawm lawv lub neej thaum ntawd, raws li tsab ntawv ceeb toom no, peb cia siab tias 18% ntau dua yuav mob plab hnyuv, uas yog nce los ntawm rau kis mus rau xya tus neeg mob.

“Txawm li cas los xij, raws li Kev Tshawb Fawb Kev Noj Qab Haus Huv thiab Khoom Noj (NDNS), qhov nruab nrab liab thiab kev ua nqaij rau cov neeg laus yog 71 g (86 g hauv txiv neej thiab 56 g hauv poj niam). Yog li ntawv tsuas yog ib qho ntxiv ntawm kev mob plab hnyuv hauv txhua qhov cov 100 lub neej nqaij npuas kib noj. “

Tarred nrog tib txhuam

IARC cais cov nqaij liab thiab cov nqaij ua noj, vim tias kev pheej hmoo ntawm mob cancer los ntawm cov nqaij ua tiav yog siab dua.

Tus txheej txheem yog dab tsi?

Hauv nws cov kev faib tawm, cov nqaij ua tiav yog “class 1” carcinogen, uas txhais tau tias cov pov thawj qhia tias nws yeej ua rau mob cancer. Dr Gunter Kuhnle, tus kws tshawb fawb txog zaub mov noj zaub mov hauv University of Reading, piav qhia li cas: “Cov nqaij ua tiav feem ntau yog kho nrog cov tshuaj tua ntsev, thiab nitrite hauv kev kho ntsev tuaj yeem ua rau tsim muaj nitrosamines hauv cov hnyuv.”

IARC txhais tau cov nqaij ua raws li: “Nqaij uas tau hloov pauv los ntawm salting, tua, fermentation, haus luam yeeb, lossis lwm yam txheej txheem txhawm rau txhim kho tsw lossis txhim kho khaws cia.” Los ntawm nws cov lus txhais, burgers thiab sausages ib txwm tsis suav nrog kev ua tiav cov nqaij.

Hauv liab

Cov nqaij liab tau qeb ua “class 2a carcinogen” – nws “tej zaum ua rau mob cancer”. Qhov no suav nrog: “cov nqaij hauv cov nqaij ua tsiaj, suav nrog, nqaij nyuj, nqaij nyuj, nqaij npuas, yaj, nqaij menyuam, nees, thiab tshis.” IARC lees paub tias cov pov thawj hais tias cov nqaij liab ua rau mob plab hnyuv yog qhov txwv, thiab raws kev tshawb xav ntau.

Thaum ntsuas xyuas seb peb noj dab tsi, NDNS lumps ua cov nqaij liab (“Chaw tsim khoom, kho thiab / lossis nqaij qhuav, suav nrog nqaij npuas thiab nqaij npua”) thiab tag nrho cov nqaij liab (“Nqaij nyuj, burgers, yaj, offal, lwm cov nqaij liab, nqaij npuas, ua tiav cov nqaij liab, hnyuv ntxwm “) ua ke. Tsoomfwv cov lus pom zoo kom txo cov nqaij liab thiab cov nqaij ua tsis txhob cais tawm ntawm ob.

Nqaij yog qhov tseem ceeb ntawm cov hlau thiab zinc hauv nruab nrab UK cov zaub mov noj.

Zoo li luam yeeb?

IARC tau faib cov nqaij ua txheej txheem ua “chav kawm 1” carcinogen thiab cov luam yeeb, tsis yog qhov xav tsis thoob, zaum hauv tib pawg. Tab sis txawm nyob ntawm no, muaj qib. Piv txwv li, yog tias tsis muaj ib tus neeg haus luam yeeb, nws kwv yees tias yuav muaj 64,500 tus neeg muaj mob qog nqaij hlav tsawg dua ib xyoos hauv tebchaws Askiv. Yog tias peb txhua tus tau muab cov nqaij tsuav ua tiav thiab cov nqaij liab, yuav muaj 8,800 yam tsawg dua. Yog li yog tias koj xav mus ib kauj ruam los txiav koj qhov kev pheej hmoo ntawm kev mob qog noj ntshav thiab koj yog nqaij noj-haus luam yeeb, yuav tsis muaj kev sib tw.

Qhov txaus ntshai thiab cov nyiaj poob haujlwm seeaw

Thaum kws kho mob muab tshuaj rau lawv noj, lawv suav hnyav txog qhov txaus ntshai thiab cov txiaj ntsig. Tag nrho cov tshuaj muaj qhov txaus ntshai, thiab muaj kev cuam tshuam zoo li poob tag nrho koj cov plaub hau, saib raws li “kev tsim nyog kev phem” rau kev kho mob qog nqaij hlav, yuav tsis tsim nyog rau kev kho mob ntawm tus mob khaub thuas.

Txo kev noj nqaij tsawg kuj tseem tuaj yeem muaj kev pheej hmoo rau qee tus neeg. Nqaij yog qhov tseem ceeb ntawm cov hlau thiab zinc hauv nruab nrab UK kev noj haus thiab daim pam pom zoo kom txiav nqaij kom tsawg yuav cuam tshuam rau qee yam ntau dua lwm tus.

Kev tshuaj xyuas cov hlau thiab kev noj qab haus huv los ntawm Pawg Kws Tshawb Fawb Txog Kev Tshawb Fawb Txog Kev Noj Qab Haus Huv (SACN), qhia txog kev pheej hmoo ntawm cov hlau thiab zinc tsawg dua hauv qee pab pawg: kev pheej hmoo tuaj yeem muaj qhov tsis zoo rau cov hlau thiab zinc nkag rau hauv tebchaws Askiv los ntawm kev faib ua feem ntawm cov pej xeem nrog kev nkag siab hauv qab LRNIs rau cov as-ham no. “

Sijhawm hloov sijhawm

Cov kab mob kev noj qab haus huv muaj ntau qhov kev cuam tshuam rau qee pab pawg tshaj lwm tus, thiab nqaij liab tsis muaj qhov tshwj xeeb. Qhov nce ntawm “noj mov huv” tej zaum zoo yuav ua rau kev noj nqaij tsawg dua hauv qee tus poj niam hluas, tab sis kev taw qhia los ntawm tsoomfwv tsis xav ua lub luag haujlwm. NDNS ntsuas thawj zaug rau peb lub tebchaws kev noj haus nyob rau xyoo 2008-9. Piv rau thawj ob xyoos ntawm daim ntawv tshuaj ntsuam, cov nqaij liab / kev ua noj nruab nrab ntawm 19- txog 64-xyoo cov poj niam tau nqis los ntawm 58 g rau 47 g ib hnub hauv ob xyoos tas los no. Ntawm cov txiv neej muaj hnub nyoog ua haujlwm, los ntawm qhov sib txawv, tsis muaj qhov tseem ceeb hauv 84 g hauv ib hnub noj.

Leej twg nyob hauv tus ncej?

Cov nqaij liab, nws zoo li, tiag tiag yog tus txiv neej tshaj plaws. Raws li NDNS, 48% ntawm 11- txog 18-xyoo poj niam, thiab 27% ntawm 19- txog 64-xyoo tus poj niam, ua tsis muaj hlau nyob hauv lawv cov zaub mov noj. Nrog rau lub sijhawm pib ntawm qhov nruab nrab hnub nyoog ntawm 12, thiab qhov xav tau ntxiv ntawm cev xeeb tub, cov no yog cov pab pawg uas xav tau hlau ntau.

Yog lawm nws tuaj yeem tau txais cov hlau uas koj xav tau hauv koj cov zaub mov tsis noj nqaij, tab sis ntau tus poj niam tsis kam. 30% ntawm cov poj niam noj 40-70 g ntawm cov nqaij liab ib hnub tsis tau txais hlau txaus hauv lawv cov zaub mov noj, piv rau 38% ntawm cov poj niam noj tsawg dua 40 g. Rau zinc, qhov sib luag sawv hauv qhov tsis muaj peev xwm yog los ntawm 5% rau 20%.

Peb muab dab tsi coj mus?

Thaum lawv tau lumped ua ke rau lub hom phiaj ntawm qee cov lus qhia, muaj kev noj qab haus huv loj sib txawv ntawm cov nqaij ua tiav thiab cov nqaij ntshiv liab xws li cov nqaij ntshiv, nqaij ci lossis cov nqaij ntshiv.

Yog tias koj yog peb-bacon-butties-and-gammon-steak-for-supper-a-day man, tej zaum koj tsis tau tso koj cov nqaij tawm hauv ob peb xyoos dhau los – tab sis koj yuav tsum xav txog nws yog tias koj xav txiav koj txoj kev pheej hmoo mob cancer. Yog tias koj haus luam yeeb, kev mus noj zaub tsis muaj zog yuav kov koj qhov kev pheej hmoo ntawm kev mob kheesxaws piv rau kev muab cov kev ua phem rau tsob ntoo.

Tab sis yog tias koj yog poj niam, tej zaum koj yuav tsum tau saib ntev ntev ntawm koj cov kev noj haus. Cov ntaub ntawv suav, koj feem ntau yuav luv luv ntawm cov hlau thiab zinc. Raws li kev txheeb suav, koj tsis tshua muaj noj ntau dua qhov xav tau ntau tshaj qhov tau thov tshiab. Thiab tsis tas li, raws li kev suav, koj yog ib tus uas yuav tau txiav nqaij tsawg. Yog tias koj xav mus veggie rau kev coj ua, uas yog sib txawv kiag li. Yog koj xav tau ob peb hnub uas tsis muaj nqaij noj, mus rau nws. Tab sis nco ntsoov tias los ntawm kev txiav koj cov nqaij noj, koj yuav tsum cia li dhia tawm ntawm cov yias mus rau hauv cov pob zeb hauv av tsis muaj hluav taws kub.

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